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Kamis, 30 Agustus 2012

The Human Body's Hand Out

Sekolah Terpadu PAHOA 4th Grader
Student's Handout
The Human Body.

for the complete subject, please click the link below :

Lesson objective :
-       Understand what is meant by system.
-       Understand that the different parts of a system must work together for the system to work properly.
-       Ability to draw a human skeletal system
-       Explain what a skeletal system is made of.
-       List the functions of the skeletal system.
-       Explain what a muscular system is made of.
-       Explain what a joint is and joint names in human skeleton.
-       List ways to keep a healthy skeletal system.
-       List ways that may harm the skeletal system.
-       Practise good posture
-       Identify parts of the eye and the ears.
-       State that the different parts of the tongue detect different tastes.
-       Understand how sense organs work with the brain.

1.1 What is a system?
The human body is a system as it has many parts. For a system to work properly, all parts must work together. If one part is missing or does not work, the system cannot work properly.

A living thing can also be a system?
Think about yourself as a human being. Are you made up of parts working together?
Our body has many different system working, right at this very minute. As you are resting on your chair, your skeleton, or in science, we call skeletal system, is protecting the soft parts inside your body. Your muscles, which are part of the muscular system, are pulling on the skeleton so that you can still sit upright.
Have you wondered what will happen if you have no skeletal system?
That means you have no bones! If you have no bones, can you stand or sit?

What will happen to you if you have no muscular system?
Bones cannot move on their own. They move only when muscles pull on them.

1.2 Human Skeleton
The bones in our body make up the skeletal system. Altogether there are 206 bones in our body.  Actually we were born with 300 bones but many fuse together as a child grows up. Bones are made of a hard substance and are not easily broken even when you have had pretty bad falls. Like a stick, when you try to break it, it first bends a little. But enough force, the stick will break. Bones will break if you fall the wrong way from your bicycles or the playground equipment.

The skeleton of the human body can be divided into three parts which are the skull, the body skeleton, and the appendicular skeleton.

Why is the skeletal system important?
1.      It supports the body and gives it its shape. That means when someone accidentally steps on your foot, it will still look like your foot and not be flattened or dented.
2.      The skeletal system also protects important parts inside the body. For example :
a.       The skull protects the brain, the eyes, and the middle and inner ears.
b.      The rib cage, spine, and sternum protect the human lungs, human heart and major blood vessels.
c.       The patella and the ulna protect the knee and the elbow respectively.
3.      As a place for muscles and tendons to cling to,
4.      As a place for blood formation.

What is a muscular system?
For our body to move, the skeletal system works with another system. The system name is Muscular system. Muscular system is made up all the muscles in our body. Muscles are joined to bones. So when the muscles move, the bones move.
The muscular system includes all the muscles in your body. The muscular system works with the skeletal system to allow the body to move.
The muscles are joined to bones. When the muscles move, the bones move.

Muscu System

Bend your arm like the man in the picture beside. Feel your biceps muscle (upper arm). What happens to the muscle? To bend your arm, the muscle in your arm contracts (get shorter). The movements of the muscle moves the bones in the arm.

Our skull consists of many bones, such as :

The anatomy of human skeleton

The body skeleton is divided into three segments which are : the backbone, ribcage and sternum.
The total backbone are 33 bones, consisting of 7 cervical vertebrates bones, and 26 thoracic vertebrae bones and the coccyx.
The upper thoracic vertebrae are connected to the ribs. The rib is connected to the sternum at the front. The fusion between the backbone, rib and sternum makes up the ribcage. On the upper ribcage, the shoulder is made up of the clavicle and the scapula.

The rib cage consists of 24 ribs (2 sets of 12), which are attached to a long, flat bone in the center of the chest called the sternum. The ribs are connected to the sternum with a strong, somewhat flexible material called cartilage.


Appendicular skeleton is the skeleton that acts as our movement tool consisting of a pair of arms and a pairs of leg. The upper extremities skeleton consists of :

The hands and feet of the human body can move easily because there are joint. The joint acts as a connector between one bone to another bone. The surface of the edge of a bone that meets the edge of another bone (ball and socket joint) is covered by a soft bone called the cartilage.
Joint is the point where 2 or more bones meet.

Type of joints:

Science Activity
Exercise and experience how joints work!
Students practice and discuss.

a.       Move your head forward and backward and then rotate your head!
b.      Turn your left and right hands to the back.
c.       Lift your arms so that they are of the same level as your shoulder, and then fold your arm at the elbow.
d.      Lift your left and right foot in turns.
e.       Hold and rotate your knees.

Question :
a. What can you feel when doing the above exercise?
b. Why can your body move?
c. What causes your body to move?

 Answer :
a.       ___________________________________________________

b.      ___________________________________________________

c.       ___________________________________________________

1.3 Human Skeleton Disease

1. Lordosis

Lordosis is defined as an excessive inward curve of the spine. It differs from the spine's normal curves at the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions. Lordosis is often also called swayback or sway back.

2. Kyphosis

Kyphosis is a forward rounding of your upper back.  It can affect children, adolescents and adults.

3. Scoliosis

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